"From Tehran to Tel Aviv"
NEW YORK: With his bold message to Iran's leaders, President Obama achieved four things essential to any rapprochement.
He abandoned regime change as an American goal. He shelved the so-called military option. He buried a carrot-and-stick approach viewed with contempt by Iranians as fit only for donkeys. And he placed Iran's nuclear program within "the full range of issues before us."
By doing so, Obama made it almost inevitable that one of the defining strategic issues of his presidency will be a painful but necessary redefinition of America's relations with Israel as differences over Iran sharpen. I will return to that below.
The innovations in the president's Persian New Year, or Nowruz, overture to Tehran were remarkable. He referred twice to "the Islamic Republic of Iran," a formulation long shunned, and said that republic, no other, should "take its rightful place in the community of nations." Here was explicit American acceptance of Iran's 30-year-old clerical revolution.
He said establishing constructive ties would "not be advanced by threats," a retreat from his own campaign position that the military option must always remain on the table. Instead he offered "mutual respect."
I was in Iran in January and February. The visit convinced me that confrontational American high-handedness has been a disaster; that facile analogies between the Iranian regime and the Nazis dishonor six million victims of the Holocaust; that the regime's provocative rhetoric masks essential pragmatism; and that the best way to help a young, stability-favoring population toward the reform they seek is through engagement.
Obama has now taken all the steps I called for then. The policy changes emerged from an interagency review of the failed Iranian policy of recent years. The shift demanded courage.
One of the people involved in the review told me he had been bombarded by warnings from Israel and Sunni Arab states that engagement with Iran would lead nowhere. Of course they would say that; any Iran breakthrough will shake up current cozy U.S. relationships from Jerusalem to Riyadh.
Obama's overture represented a victory not only over such lobbying but also over officials favoring tightened sanctions or delaying any American initiative until after Iran's June presidential election.
The hard part has just begun. Iran's supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, responded to Obama with a scathing speech at the country's holiest shrine in Mashad, recalling every past U.S. misdeed, describing prerevolutionary Iran as "a field for the Americans to graze in," and demanding concrete steps ? like a lifting of sanctions ? rather than words.
View all that as an opening gambit. Khamenei also quieted the crowd when it began its ritual "Death to America" chant and he said this: "We're not emotional when it comes to our important matters. We make decisions by calculation."
That's right: The mullahs are anything but mad. Calculation will demand that Iran take Obama seriously.
The country's oil revenue has plunged, its economy is in a mess, its oil and gas installations are aging. It has deepening interests in a stable Iraq and an Afghanistan free of Taliban rule. Its nuclear program involves a measure of brinkmanship that must be carefully managed. Khamenei, whose essential role is conservative ? the preservation of the revolution ? can only be radical up to a point.
Iran's apparent inclination to take up a U.S. invitation to attend a conference on Afghanistan later this month may be more significant than Khamenei's words. But overcoming a 30-year impasse will take time and consistent determination.
The clock is ticking ? and Obama's will not be the same as that of Israel's prime minister designate, Benjamin Netanyahu.
Already divergent U.S. and Israeli approaches to Iran were evident in Israeli President Shimon Peres's coupling of his own Nowruz address to the Iranian people with a statement predicting they would rise up and topple "a handful of religious fanatics."
A senior Israeli official told me Iran has 1,000 kilos of low-enriched uranium and will have another 500 within six months, enough to make a bomb. It could then opt for one of three courses.
Rush for a bomb by shredding the nuclear nonproliferation treaty, adapting its centrifuges and producing enough highly-enriched uranium within a year. Move the process to a secret site, in which case getting a bomb would take longer, perhaps two years. Or go on making low-enriched uranium so that "it would have enough for 10 bombs if it decides to rush at a later stage."
And where, I asked, lies the Israeli red line? "Once they get to 1,500 kilos, nonproliferation is dead," he said. And so? "It's established that when a country that does not accept Israel's existence has such a program, we will intervene."
I think there's a measure of bluster in this. Israel does not want Obama to talk, talk, talk, so it's suggesting military action could happen in 2009, within nine months.
Still, this much is clear to me: Obama's new policies of Middle Eastern diplomacy and engagement will involve reining in Israeli bellicosity and a probable cooling of U.S.-Israeli relations. It's about time. America's Israel-can-do-no-wrong policy has been disastrous, not least for Israel's long-term security.