Fritz Kraemer's World 3.0 in Istanbul
The President of the World Security Network Foundation (WSN), Dr. Hubertus Hoffmann, gave two impressive speeches on his new book True Keeper of the Holy Flame. The Legacy of Pentagon Strategist and Mentor Dr Fritz Kraemer (see www.worldsecuritynetwork.com/fritzkraemer) in Istanbul, Turkey and discussed the new elements of a better foreign and defense policy called World 3.0 with scholars and journalists during a dinner hosted by the WSN Foundation.
Dr. Fritz Kraemer was a German emigrant to the U.S. who discovered the two later U.S. Secretaries of State Henry Kissinger and Alexander Haig and a senior advisor in the Pentagon for 25 years. He initiated the World Security Network to connect the young global elites in foreign and defense affairs with Hubertus Hoffmann ten years ago. In his speech Dr. Hoffmann focused in particular on innovative options of World 3.0 to promote peace and stability in the important geopolitical triangle of Turkey, Syria and Iran.Dr. M. Murat Erdogan (right side), Associate Professor and Director of the Hacettepe University Migration and Politics Research Centre, Vice Director of the European Union Research Center in Ankara (Turkey) and a member of the International Advisory Board of the World Security Network Foundation (WSN) with Dr. Hubertus Hoffmann, President of the WSN in Istanbul: "The influential Turkish experts appreciated the serious efforts of the Codes of Tolerance project and the World Security Network for peace and tolerance in a diverse world."
A further aim of the visit to Istanbul was the promotion for intercultural dialogue and the important Codes of Tolerance project (www.codesoftolerance.com) of WSN, including the elements of respect and tolerance in Islam. In Istanbul we visited a number of important experts. Prof. Dr. Bekir Karliga, Senior Advisor of Turkish Prime Minister R.T. Erdogan for the UN initiative "Alliance of Civilizations" and Director of Civilization Studies Center at the University of Bahçeşehir, invited the WSN delegation for lunch and discussed cooperation with its project Codes of Tolerance. Dr. Hoffmann discussed with Prof. Dr. Tayyar Altıkulaç, former President of The Presidency of Religious Affairs between 1978-1986 (Grand Mufti of Turkey) and academic staff at the University of 29 Mayıs, tolerance towards other religions and ethnic minorities and tolerance treaties of the Prophet from the 7th century. We debated with Prof. Dr. İlber Ortaylı, a leading Turkish historian, professor of history at the Galatasaray University, the tolerance document of Prophet Mohammad for the St. Catherine Monastry in Sinai from 628. The influential Turkish experts appreciated the serious efforts of the Codes of Tolerance project and WSN for peace and tolerance in a diverse world.
Hoffmann's speech on "Fritz Kraemer and the elements of a World 3.0" in Istanbul discussed the basic elements of world peace and security and explored some fresh approaches. World 3.0 is the last chapter in his new book. The international system of the world has been changing continuously and many changes have occurred since World War II. Countries have shaped their foreign policies accordingly with more actors involved. Corner stones in the history of international relations have changed the process since 9/11. Since then, the paradigm of foreign policy shifted from soft factors to hard factors. However, many foreign policy makers and elites realize now that hard do not suffice in the long term if they are not combined with soft factors.
The World 3.0 proposals and ideas by Hubertus Hoffmann show a detailed guideline for actions and a fresh approach to international relations in a globalized world. Hoffmann's parameters need to be discussed now with experts and politicians, as in Turkey. His ideas for a more active and better planned foreign and defense policy called World 3.0 take almost every point into account and always promotes double strategies of power and reconciliation, hawk and dove. Hoffmann also discussed the character of foreign policy personnel which need personalities with an 'inner musicality', vision, strong character and imagination. His plan and proposals appear optimistic regarding the future of the world order as the main enemy "is not al-Qaeda or other extremists but our own bureaucracy which lacks long-term planning, options and does not shape reality but only adapts to it". Power and military means are needed as much as soft factors of peacemaking as two equal pillars. Hubertus Hoffmann has not only a realistic but also an idealistic approach to foreign policy. He believes that new innovative actors like NGOs and a fresh responsibility-elite of young people have to be integrated in foreign affairs. Codes of Tolerance and a reconciliation policy must become part of it. He advocates not only concrete tools but also values and rational factors which are what make the plan attractive and convincible.
As Hoffmann points out, proactive foreign policy is what might be preferable to a purely reactive approach. This includes containing risks before they spiral out of control. "We only act when it is too late, costs most tax money and soldiers' lives", he argues. In order to act faster, all the factors should be considered quickly, consequences taken into account, and steps planned accurately. If the process is managed early in time and successfully, the cost of action will definitely be less.
It cannot be denied that many countries are aware of the need of a more proactive foreign policy as a new action type in international relations. However, taking such action requires a strong leadership and a clear decision making process in the foreign ministries. Calculating risks and determining first steps may not always create predictable outcomes.Turkey recently attempted a more proactive involvement with itsneighboring countries through the 'zero problem with neighbors' policy but ended up with unpredictable additional problems through the events in Syria, Iran and Iraq. Hoffmann's advocacy of optimism regarding the future of the world order should be appreciated because realistic actors of current foreign policy mostly have a too pessimistic approach that depends on interests and power struggles of countries. However, thanks to the globalization, international relations have additional actors not only more states. The inclusion of NGOs, individual actors and public opinion in the making of foreign policy leads to a more creative and active approach. These actors fortunately also teach governments that there are sometimes other soft ways to solve problems rather than going to war only. It should be the last option.
I believe the most important principle of the World 3.0 is to turn to values rather than power and interest relations only. What has been missing, in theory and practice, regarding foreign policies is to act according to values. As Hoffmann states, liberal values like human rights, democracy, rule of law, freedom etc. should be leading values of relations between states as we believe they should be of domestic political regimes. In order to achieve these principles in international relations, tolerance and respect are basic elements that foreign policy makers have to follow. We may say that human rights, freedom, and democracy are universal values; however, culture and identity are not. Thus, tolerating the differences of others and respect their identities and cultures are key points of applying so called values to international relations.
What foreign policy makers should be aware of is, in the globalization era, preserving classical principles of nation-state is not possible any longer. People from different roots are more visible now. There is an enormous exchange of cultures, people, goods, political institutions and so forth. Moreover, the global system is more sensitive than ever. Any event at one end of the world has capacity to affect the other end very easily and quickly. It is obvious that the world 3.0 needs to be defined again. Any foreign policy that violates the nature of the individual and society will probably be destined to fail, as in Syria now. We need to watch out for the principles of both realistic and liberal approaches, being more orientated towards the individual but also denying realities in international relations at the same time.
World 3.0 is quite a compatible plan with its double approach of power and diplomacy. While it favors some ideals that the world order really needs, it does not ignore the hard factors of peace-making which are needed to avoid 'provocative weakness' (Fritz Kraemer). Such a plan requires great efforts in planning, timing and creativity and many engaged politicians and citizens, in Turkey and all over the world. Let's start the discussion and implementation now.